limanov (limanov) wrote,

Voynich manuscript: content and the principles of its decoding

0.1. Some preliminary postulates
(русская версия:
0.1.1. VM is not fake, and was written around the XV-XVI centuries.
0.1.2. The basic language of the VM is Latin.
0.1.3. The basic principle of coding is a set of methods of medieval Latin abbreviations (contraction, suspension, tyronian signs, fusion, etc.). Different combinations of these techniques are used in different VM fragments. The simple correspondence of “grapheme VM – the letter of natural language” is not often found. An ordinary case of correspondence should be considered “grapheme VM – syllable”.
0.1.4. The VM graphs quite often correspond to their “analogs” from medieval Latin script, but a number of graphemes are the author's own development. Almost all VM graphemes are multifunctional, i.e. have not one meaning. Their meaning can be determined by a) the context, b) the position in the “word”, c) by the inscription.
0.1.5. In the VM text, as a rule, most vowels are omitted.
0.1.6. Encoding with substitutions, permutations, etc. is used fragmentarily, only in some sections of the manuscript and for certain notes.
0.1.7. Among numerous approaches to deciphering VM for a single reliable hypothesis, we adopted the interpretation of Rene Zandbergen and Stephen Bax (2004-2013, 2014) word IMG_20170513_115551_HDR.jpg (on p. F68r3) as Taurus / Taurn (Taurus, Taurus constellation).

0.2. At the first stage of the decoding of the VM text we used our original method of text analysis, which is indifferent to the language of the analyzed object. (For more details on the algorithm and scripts, see and Most preliminary postulates are based on data obtained with the help of this analysis. In particular, the analysis showed that the text is natural and highly organized (in terms of the level of structural complexity and ordering comparable to high-quality artistic texts).

1.0. Deciphered.
1.1. F68r3.X.3.
1006196 - 3).jpg
Decryption: . The segment denoted by the number 1 = Parilicius, by the number 2 = an, by the number 3 = pharus. 'Parilicius an pharus' or 'Palylium or lighthouse'.

1.2. F70v2.c.1.
1006200 - копия (2).jpg
Decryption: IMG_20170512_195823.jpg. 1 = astrum, 2 = Kullat, 3 = Nun[u]. 'Astrum Kullat Nun [u]' or 'the star of Kullat Nun'.

1.3. f77r.X.6.
1006212 - копия.jpg
Decryption: image (SORAL).jpeg. 1 = corda, 2 = arteria, 3 = vena. 'Corde arteria venosa'; 'the main (cardiac) vein'.

1.4. F77r.P.19.
1006212 - копия (3).jpg
Decryption: image (7).jpeg.
Two sentences.
1 = cor (cordis), 2 = an (anima), 3 = ortus est, 4 = qui, 5 = salitus / salire [et]. 'Cordis anima ortusest qui salire [et]'; "The vitality [vital force] of the heart is generated / is due to heartbeat / pulsation [a / but / and]".
6 = vitalis, 7 = est, 8 = spiritus, 9 = cuius, 10 = est substantiam, 11 = quo modo, 12 = factionis.  '[Et] vitalis est spiritus cuius est substantiam quo modo factionis'; "[a / but / and] the life-giving spirit / breath is that it is both essence and action / doing."

1.5. F77v.N.4.
1006213 - копия.jpg
Decryption: IMG_20170512_195654.jpg. 1 = cataboli [c / re / sm?], 2 = arca, 3 = urina [e / lis]. 'Cataboli [c] arca urina [e / lis]'; 'the output capacity of the urethra'.

2.0. Necessary explanations - 1.

2.1. When correlating VM-graphemes with Latin letters, syllables and words, we proceeded from the rules of writing medieval Latin, Italian and French abbreviations collected in the works of European paleographs-latinists Adriano Cappelli, Maurice Prou ​​and Wilhelm Wattenbach. A small part of these rules is reproduced by the VM author literally, and the rest are reworked.
2.2. When selecting the dictionary matches for deciphering the text on pages f77r and f77v, we used the Latin translations Avicennae Canon medicinae, Galeni Ars medicinalis, Averroes Colliget and Maimonides (Tractatus de regimine sanitatis etc.), where we searched for persistent thematic phraseology. The algorithm is simple, though labor-intensive: according to the VM drawings, specific topics are defined (digestive tract - f75r, lungs - f75v, circulatory system - f77r, etc.), then the Latin terms, statistically the most significant for this topic, VM - in accordance with the rules of medieval reductions. The received variants are checked on thematic phraseological units of known sources. The sampled options are checked against the VM statistics. And so several iterations.

2.3. Some stable "letter" correspondences of VM - Latin:
2.3.1. R.png - grapheme R (eva). Corresponds to the letter 'r'.
2.3.2. 1006078 - копия.jpg - grapheme S (eva). Matches the letter 'c'.
2.3.3. There is one more grapheme, which is very similar to 'r' and 'c'.
image (5).jpeg - the grapheme type 3, the VM researchers refer either to R (eva), or to S (eva). But it is neither one nor the other.
So, 1006224 - копия (2).jpg - grapheme S/R (eva). It corresponds to the letter 't' with the title. Here is an example from Cappelli: Безымянный1.png (ti).
2.3.4. image (2).jpeg - grapheme L (eva). 1 - corresponds to the letter 'n', 2 - to the letter 'p'.
2.3.5. 1006080.jpg - grapheme O (eva). Corresponds to the letters 'a', 'u / v'.
2.3.6. 1006102 - копия (3).jpg and 1006209 - копия (5).jpg - grapheme D (eva). Corresponds to the letters 'b', 't', 'p'.
2.3.7. image (9).jpeg - grapheme T (eva). Corresponds to the combinations 'ft', 'fp', 'fs'.
2.3.8. image (8).jpeg - grapheme K (eva). Corresponds to the combinations 'st', 'sl'.
(It should be borne in mind that the matches are not literal, that is, for example, if the given image (8).jpeg is 'st', then 'st' can mean 'sot [...]', and 'sart [...]', and 'sit [...]', etc.)
2.3.9. 1006208 - stomach3 - копия.jpg - grapheme A (eva). It corresponds to the letters 'u / v', 't'.
2.4. Examples of rules governing the use of polyfunctional graphemes.
2.4.1. If the combination image (10).jpeg corresponds to p [a] ri [...], then there is not and can not be one 1006102 - копия (2) - копия.jpg where 1006102 - копия (2) - копия - копия.jpg= p [a], and 1006102 - копия (3) - копия - копия.jpg = ri [...].
2.4.2. The graph 1006209 - копия (5).jpg at the end 1006188 (1).jpg can match both 't' and 'b', but never 'sg'.
2.4.3. The graph 1006208 - stomach3 - копия.jpg in combinations 1006102 - копия (4).jpg, 1006208 - stomach3.jpg can correspond to 't' only if a new word begins with it.

3.0. Necessary explanations - 2.

3.1. To decrypt the word IMG_PALIL.jpg (see item 1.1.).
A large star, located next to the image of the constellation Pleiades and deciphered by Rene Zandbergen and Stephen Bax by the word Taurus / Taurn (IMG_20170513_115551_HDR.jpg), is, according to the majority of researchers (and ours, among others) the image of Aldebaran. The Romans called this star Palilicus or Parilicus, the Greeks called the Lighthouse (Pharus or Lampauras). We believe that in the fragment IMG_PALIL - копия.jpg the second grapheme corresponds to the combination 'ri'. Such a correspondence is often encountered in the practice of Latin abbreviations of the 15th-16th centuries.
3.2. To decrypt the word IMG_20170512_195823 - копия.jpg (see paragraph 1.2.).
The star, the most important for the constellation of Pisces, is this Pisces. Or, in the Arabic version - Al-Ferg. The passage of the Sun through this constellation begins an astrological year. And the star Al-Ferg is not only the brightest star in Pisces, but is located right on the ecliptic. It is the first star of the new solar cycle. Its Babylonian name is Kullat Nun [a / u / i].
3.3. To decrypt the word image.jpeg (see paragraph 1.3.).
3.3.1. The graph 1006078 - копия.jpg and combinations sol-sor etc.jpg in the texts of the medical (physiological) section of VM are, as we believe, mainly associated with such terms as "heart" (cor), "body" (corpore) and "treatment" (cura). This hypothesis is confirmed by the standards of grapheme 1006078 - копия.jpg usage in medieval Latin manuscripts, statistics of the use of the mentioned terms in medieval medical treatises and statistics of the actual VM.
In all VM combination sol-sor etc - копия (2).jpg appears 148 times. 79 appearances fall on the medical section. 148/79.
Ratio for the combination sol-sor etc - копия (3).jpg: 57 - 22.
For combination sol-sor etc - копия (4).jpg: 55 - 21.
For combination sol-sor etc - копия (5).jpg: 84 - 20.
For combination sol-sor etc - копия (6).jpg: 68 - 29.
For combination sol-sor etc - копия.jpg: 144 - 43.
In this case, the ratio between the number of pages in the medical section and VM as a whole is 20 against 208, i.е. Approximately 1/10.
3.3.2. The phraseology "arteria venosa" is quite normal for the XIV-XVI centuries. Medieval medical term "vein" meant any blood vessels. Therefore, they were just veins, and arterial veins, i.e. Arteries in modern understanding. This "term" is present in two more VM locations - on page f100v and on page f107v.
3.5. To decrypt the word image (6) - копия.jpeg (see paragraph 1.5.).
The third letter in this "word" (see paragraph 2.3.3.), Determined by the majority of researchers as EVA-S or EVA-R, in our opinion, differs from the standard S / R-outline. We define it as a sign "T 'with a title."
3.6. Use the text analysis method (see paragraph 0.2. and
For the analysis of individual pages and fragments of the VM, two ways of presenting the text were used:
A) fragments of VM in EVA-transcription were transliterated in Cyrillic alphabet (each letter of EVA is given a Russian correspondence, for example: 1006102 - копия (3) - копия - копия.jpg = EVA 'ch' = 'ч' in Cyrillic alphabet, etc.)
The resulting "text" was analyzed;
B) VM-graphemes were divided into groups in accordance with the level of graphic complexity; The dynamics of these groups was analyzed.

4.0. The conclusion №1.
About the contents of the VM
The author of VM does not tell us anything fundamentally unique and unknown for conditional contemporaries. In essence, this manuscript is a creative compilation of the most significant philosophical and medical treatises known at that time. The main five parts of the manuscript - herbalist, anatomy, astrology, recipes and "maxims" - is the unconditional standard for all such texts, beginning with the basic Atharva Veda, and ending with the already modern Chzhud-Shi (it is clear that Galen, Avicenna, and among other authors of the Antiquity-Renaissance, all these elements were present, in one or another extent).
Certain "nuances" (such as f85 / 86, Rosettes folio) do not quite fit into this standard, but if we take into account such a thing as "shamanic travel" and its various variations and manifestations (Jewish ways of soul rebirth, Jewish The description of the movement along the tree of the Sefirot, the Dante wanderings and the scheme of his route, the birth and erection of the golden bud in the Taoist tradition, the tribute, etc.), and for Rosettes folio one can find a prototype.

4.1. The conclusion №2.
For normal, rather than fragmented, VM decoding, in-depth collaboration between several specialists is necessary. First, medievalist, specialist in medieval Latin paleography. Secondly, the connoisseur of medieval medical treatises, including the Latin translations of Avicenna, Averroes, Galen and Maimonides.

4.2. The conclusion №3.
We assume that individual words and / or syllables can be interpreted inaccurately by us, but the principle of the approach to deciphering seems to us to be correct.
Tags: #voynich, #voynichmanuscript
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